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1. Spinal Cord
2. Anulus Fibrosus
3. Nucleus Pulposus
4. Nerve Root
An intervertebral disc (Latin: Discus intervertebralis) is a flexible connection between vertebrae. It absorbs the pressure and allows the movement of the vertebrae and consists of an outer fibrous ring called annulus fibrosus and an inner soft portion which called nucleus pulposus. The annulus fibrosus is made of a multiple strong layers of fibrocartilage. The nucleus pulposus which is surrounded by annulus fibrosus is a gelatinous substance that is under pressure because of its high hydrophilicity. The nucleus pulposus due to its structure acts as a shock absorber and provides the movement ability of the spine.
The Spinal disc herniation (Latin: prolapsus nuclei pulposi) is a disease of the spine, where the soft central portion of the disc (nucleus pulposus) bulge out beyond its outer fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) and causes nerve root compression. The spinal disc herniation may occur in different regions of spinal cord. The most cases happen in lumbar (L4-L5 or L5-S1) and the cervical region (C5-C6 or C6-C7). Thoracic region has the least possibility because of its robust structure.